Fall is almost here. That means it’s time for cozy sweaters, changing leaves, apple cider, football games and everyone’s favorite – open enrollment season.
OK, you’re probably not looking forward to open enrollment as much as drinking pumpkin-spiced lattes or eating chili at a tailgate party. In fact, you might be dreading sifting through the information your employer gives you and having to make decisions about the health care plans, retirement savings accounts, life insurance and other workplace benefits that are available.
Keep in mind, though, that open enrollment is likely the one window of opportunity you’ll get during the year to sign up for benefits or make changes to the benefits you’ve already opted to receive. So it’s important to dedicate some time to reviewing your options.
That said, you can make the most of your time by focusing on benefits that will have the biggest impact on your finances. Here the benefits you may want to pay more attention to – and the ones you might not need to agonize over at length.
Choose the right health care coverage
If there’s one benefit you’ll probably pay the most attention to during open enrollment, it’s health insurance, and for good reason. That’s because the amount you pay could vary greatly depending on the type of coverage you choose.
A majority of companies surveyed by the Society of Human Resource Managers (SHRM) said they offered two or more types of health care plans. The most common are preferred provider organization (PPO) plans, followed by high-deductible health plans and health maintenance organizations (HMOs). PPOs tend to have higher premiums than HMOs but offer more flexibility for seeing specialists and out-of-network providers. High-deductible health plans have low premiums because the deductibles are high – meaning you have to pay more out of pocket before your coverage kicks in.
Katie Brewer, a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ professional and president of Your Richest Life, says she has a lot of clients who are “gung-ho” about opting into a high-deductible health plan because the premium is lower. But these plans aren’t ideal if you have a lot of medical expenses – especially if you have young children who make lots of trips to the doctor.
To figure out which plan is best for you, review your health care spending over the past year, Brewer says. This could be as easy as logging onto your health insurance website and looking at the claims you filed. Also, consider the cost of your prescription drugs and whether you’ll need any medical procedures in the coming year to get an idea of what your health care costs will be. If you expect to have high medical costs, a high-deductible health plan might not be right for you.
Even if you’re happy with your current health care plan, review it during open enrollment to make sure there won’t be any changes to your coverage or the cost, says Laura Gariepy, who worked in human resources for 10 years and now is a freelance financial writer. “Employees need to be aware of these changes so that they don’t encounter unpleasant surprises at the doctor’s office — or on their pay stubs.”
Don’t miss out on workplace health care incentives. Your employer might offer rewards and bonuses for completing health and wellness programs. Nearly one-fourth of the employers surveyed by SHRM offer this benefit, one-third offer a subsidy or reimbursement for fitness classes.
Take advantage of a health savings account
If your employer offers a health plan with a deductible of at least $1,400 for individual coverage or $2,800 for family coverage in 2020 and you sign up for it, there’s a good chance you also can take advantage of a health savings account. This account allows you to set aside money for out-of-pocket health care costs.
The money to fund an HSA typically comes out of your paycheck before taxes, which lowers your taxable income. And you don’t have to pay taxes on the money you withdraw if you use it for qualified medical expenses. “It’s like buying your health care on sale because you’re getting your effective tax rate as the discount,” Brewer says.
In 2020, you can contribute up to $3,550 to an HSA if you have an individual high-deductible health insurance coverage and up to $7,100 if you have family coverage. If you don’t use all of the amount you contribute during the year, you won’t lose it. The money will remain in the account and grow tax-free.
Your employer might even make contributions to an HSA for you. “Why not take advantage of that free money if you are young and healthy?” says Sean Mullaney, a CPA and president of Mullaney Financial and Tax, Inc.
Consider a medical flexible spending account
Even if you don’t have a high-deductible health plan and HSA, you might be able to set aside pre-tax dollars in a flexible spending account for medical expenses. As with an HSA, using pre-tax dollars in an FSA to pay for qualified medical costs means you’re paying less — based on the amount of your income tax rate.
You can contribute up to $2,700 to a medical FSA in 2019. The 2020 limit hasn’t been announced. Unlike an HSA, you must use all the funds in an FSA during the year or lose them – unless your employer has a carryover option that allows employees to carry over $500 of unused funds to the following plan year. So you need to carefully calculate how much to set aside in an FSA.
Save on child care costs with a dependent care FSA
“Child care costs are so high today that the monthly costs could be as much as mortgage payments for some families,” says Echo Huang, founder and president of Echo Wealth Management. So Huang explains you should take advantage of a dependent care flexible spending account to help lower those costs.
Money contributed to a dependent care FSA comes out of your paycheck before taxes, which reduces your taxable income. When you use FSA funds to pay for child care, the tax advantages of the FSA can save you money.
Review your retirement savings account options
You can review and make changes at any time to the amount you’re contributing to your 401(k) or similar retirement plan at work. “But why not take advantage of open enrollment to make sure you are optimizing your 401(k),” Mullaney says.
For example, if you were automatically enrolled into your workplace retirement plan, the default contribution amount might be too low to get the full matching contribution from your employer, he says. If your employer matches contributions up to, say, 6% of your earnings, but you’re contributing only 3% of your pay to your 401(k), you’re missing out on free money.
Ideally, a good target for saving is 10% of your income annually. So if your employer offers an option to automatically increase your retirement account contribution annually by a percentage point or two, consider taking advantage of this feature to get to a point over time where you’re saving 10% or more, Brewer says.
You may want to check if your employer offers a Roth 401(k). Unlike a traditional 401(k), contributions to a Roth 401(k) are made with after-tax money, so qualified withdrawals in retirement are generally tax-free. (To avoid paying taxes on your Roth 401(k) withdrawals, your account must be held for at least five years and you must be at least 59½ or the distribution must be due to disability or death). Brewer says you may want to consider contributing to both a Roth 401(k) and a traditional 401(k).
Also don’t miss out on financial planning offered by your employer. According to SHRM, 57% of employers surveyed offer retirement planning or investment advice as a benefit. Find out if your employer offers this benefit and consider taking advantage of it if you need help figuring out how much to save for retirement and which investments may help you reach your financial goals.
Don’t overlook disability insurance
Many employers offer group disability insurance. Disability insurance is an important benefit that often gets overlooked Brewer says. Disability insurance will protect of portion of your income lost if you should become too sick or injured to work.
If you already have disability coverage, consider whether you have enough, Brewer explains. Ideally, you want disability insurance with a benefit that will replace more than half of your income if you become disabled and can no longer work. Coverage varies, but generally, short-term disability insurance will replace a percentage of your income if you are too sick or injured to work for a shorter time period. Group long-term disability insurance generally pays out benefits if you meet the definition of disabled for longer time periods.
Be aware of group life insurance limitations
Don’t ignore the group life insurance offered by your employer, Brewer says. But don’t assume your employer’s basic coverage is enough, she explains.
The coverage will likely be an amount equal to two to three times the amount of your annual salary, which likely won’t be enough to cover your financial needs when you die. To avoid being underinsured, you could consider signing up for group life insurance then apply for an individual term life insurance policy, Brewer says. The individual policy can supplement your group coverage. Most group life insurance isn’t portable, so if you were to leave your job, your group life insurance would likely end. In that case, if you had purchased an individual life insurance policy, you would still have some coverage in place.
Figure out if you really need accidental death insurance
Accidental death insurance is so cheap that many employees sign up for this benefit, Brewer says. However, they often confuse it with life insurance.
Accidental death insurance will pay out a benefit if you die – but only if your death is a direct result of an accident, Brewer says. “The probability of that paying out is small,” she explains. For that reason, you may want to consider whether you need this additional benefit..
Legal services may be a toss-up
One-third of employers surveyed by SHRM offer a legal services benefit that gives employees access to legal assistance at affordable rates. If you know you’re going to need legal assistance in the next year – perhaps because you need estate planning documents drafted or you’re getting a divorce – you might want to sign up for this benefit. “Sometimes a prepaid legal plan is an inexpensive way to get access to an attorney,” Brewer says.
But if you don’t need any legal documents drafted and don’t anticipate legal troubles in the near future, you may want to consider whether you’ll need this benefit.
Exercise caution with pet insurance
That pet insurance plan your employer is offering might seem like a good deal if you want to make sure your furry friend is protected. Before you sign up, though, read the fine print to make sure you know what sort of coverage you’re actually getting, Brewer says. The premium you’ll have to pay might not be worth it if the maximum benefit isn’t enough to cover the cost of expensive procedures for your pet, she explains.
As you review these and any other benefits your employer offers, coordinate with your spouse or partner – if you have one – to ensure that you’re not duplicating benefits. Also, as tedious open enrollment might seem, resist the urge to rush through the process. It’s always a good move to see what your employer has to offer to ensure you’re taking advantage of the best possible benefits available, Gariepy says.